APPENDIX A: Illinois State Library Federally Funded Projects — 1967-1979
The late 1960s and 1970s saw an explosion in federally funded programs at the Illinois State Library due to the great increases in funding appropriated by Congress in subsequent updates of the Library Services and Construction Act. As the administering agency in Illinois for LSCA, the State Library was responsible for the approval and distribution of federal funds for library development programs. LSCA originally required that federal monies be used for library services (Title I), library construction (Title II), and interlibrary cooperation (Title III). But subsequent updates for special-needs patrons allowed more broadly determined specific uses for the funds.
The large volume of programs makes their inclusion in the main text impractical. The majority are described below. Included in this Appendix are examples of the federally funded programs from the late 1960s through the late 1970s. Many of the topics, including cooperation, community outreach, continuing education, and special collections development, were new areas of emphasis at the library during this period. Many of the programs reflect the increasing emphasis of library systems in development of librarianship in Illinois.
The success of the 1967 Target Community Project (see main text) spawned similar programs aimed at the disadvantaged. One such program in the less-affluent Chicago suburb of Lawndale the following year was aimed at the “culturally deprived.” In October 1968, the Chicago Public Library received a $160,812 Library Services and Construction Act grant to establish a “Neighborhood Library Center” in the basement of Lawndale’s Douglas Branch Library. The program was a cooperative effort with the Chicago Board of Education, in which elementary school students were bussed to the center. The plan also offered “the utilization of a wide variety of black culture materials, and the sponsorship of a variety of group events.” The Lawndale program proved as successful as the Target Community Project. In 1969, 14 area elementary schools participated and nearly 11,000 children visited the Douglas Branch Library, resulting in a circulation of nearly 13,000 books.1A
Federal funding for the Lawndale project ended in the spring of 1970, but the program’s success spawned another neighborhood library venture at the Kelly Branch of the Englewood District on Chicago’s south side. This project was funded with a $148,410 LSCA grant. A book van based at the Kelly Branch was sent to 10 neighborhood schools. Students bussed to the Kelly center received “library instruction” and the opportunity for academic classes based on age groups. Preschool children and their parents were offered classroom guidance, while older students received individual tutoring. Teenagers could attend career and vocational guidance as well as African-American history classes. Programs for adults included instruction in English, job counseling, and activities geared to senior citizens. Evening programs on drug awareness and consumer education were also offered. The program was overseen by an advisory committee of 25 highly dedicated residents whose efforts included the distribution of bulletins throughout the neighborhoods and a “roving book van” featuring a loudspeaker.2A
A third Neighborhood Library Center was created at the Lincoln Park Branch Library. Funded in 1971, that center was aimed at the needs of the area’s Spanish-speaking residents who had asked the Chicago Public Library to provide more programs for Spanish-speakers. The Lincoln Park Project eventually served a population of 31,000. However, the project came under criticism in its planning stages because of the low concentration of Spanish-speaking people around Lincoln Park, which had been chosen “because of its superior physical facilities.”3A
Another Chicago-area project aimed at Spanish-speaking residents was the 1973 El Centro de la Causa project. The project was named for a community center in the Pilsen neighborhood and was jointly funded by the Library Services and Construction Act, the Board of Higher Education, and the Chicago Public Library. The community center and the Chicago Public Library planned the program, which enhanced the book and materials collections and began specialized information and reference services. The program also created educational and recreational programs for Spanish-speaking residents of the area. In 1974, the project was evaluated by the Library Research Center at the University of Illinois.4A
Spanish-speakers were also the subject of an eight-library, 1975 project aimed to improve service to Spanish-speaking residents in the northwest Chicago suburbs by solving problems common to each of the eight libraries. There was difficulty in locating the 5,000 to 6,000 Spanish-speakers scattered throughout the eight communities needing library service and discovering the nature of those needs. Language barriers and a lack of government agencies serving their needs were also concerns. Head librarians, staffs, and trustees joined in planning the project, which included personalized information and referrals, special Spanish and basic adult education collections, and bilingual programs.5A
Outside Chicago, the Peoria Public Library administered a successful community outreach program in 1969. “Score with Books” was intended to bring library service to an economically depressed area of Peoria and “demonstrate that reading could be fun and profitable.” Study centers were set up in the Taft and Warner Homes, two predominately African-American Peoria Public Housing Authority facilities. The Taft Study Center held paperbacks relating to African-American culture and heritage. Multimedia holdings included 250 cassette tapes, three cassette recorders, a 16-millimeter film projector, many films, a handful of educational games, and two typewriters. Sponsored activities included a camera club, charm classes, do-it-yourself programs, and field trips. The Warner Center offered many of the same activities, including talent clubs, artistic contests, and reading and tutoring programs. “Score with Books” staffed a “busy bookmobile [that] visits playgrounds, parks near a tavern, and stops at a beauty shop, liquor store, and barbershop to leave books.” The Peoria Public Library continued the “Score with Books” project when the federal program ended in 1971.6A
Community outreach programs continued throughout the next decade. In 1970, the Lincoln Trail Libraries System received a Library Services and Construction Act grant to create a library service center on the north end of Champaign. The Douglass Neighborhood Center project was a collaboration of the Lincoln Trail system and the public libraries of Champaign and Urbana, which pooled resources to create a program tailored to the needs of a disadvantaged neighborhood. The Douglass Neighborhood Center was located in an area where many low-income African-Americans resided. Local support for the project continued after termination of federal funds.7A
That same year, library services in East St. Louis received attention from a federally funded survey – the Model Cities Program of East St. Louis – to examine ways to improve public services. The survey reviewed the East St. Louis Public Library and its role in the city and made recommendations to revamp the library as a service center for all city residents. A community analysis critiqued library resources and services, the library’s relationship to its system, and the city’s unique characteristics. The 1972 survey’s results were published by the Illinois State Library under the title A Call to Excellence and Innovation: A Survey of the East St. Louis, Illinois, Public Library.8A
Eight years later, East St. Louis was also the site of a program with the lengthy title of “Creating a Community Program to Attract Adult Non-Library Users in Low-Income Area.” The project examined the potentials of library extension in East St. Louis, a city faced with rapidly increasing unemployment and a shrinking tax base. The intent was to develop the library as a resource agency for the sixty percent of the adult population who did not use the library. Public relations efforts designed to increase awareness of the library’s services and materials were emphasized.9A
Another federally funded March 1970 program was “Operation Read,” headquartered at the Rock Island Public Library. This was another Model Cities program and was divided between two community centers. One center, Arsenal Courts, was established in a former three-bedroom apartment as a library-study facility tailored to the needs of residents of a nearby low-income housing development. Activities included story hours, charm classes, arts and crafts, and audiovisual presentations. The Hickman Center, several blocks away from Arsenal Courts, was a recreational and social facility with a large paperback collection. Film showings for young people and a brightly painted bookmobile further promoted library services. Staff members placed stands with current paperback titles in a local record store, barbershop, pool hall, the county jail, and other locations.10A
In 1971, the Rockford Public Library received a two-year grant to develop experimental service projects for the disadvantaged in four areas of the city. The unwieldy titled project, “A Program to Design and Develop Experimental Libraries Service Programs to Serve Disadvantaged Groups in Rockford,” collected data on factors that encouraged, or prevented, the disadvantaged from library usage. Other libraries used this data in their own analysis of programs for the disadvantaged. Activities for the disadvantaged were explored, as well as “employing the disadvantaged to work with the disadvantaged in positions that had a library career potential.” This project was continued by the Rockford Public Library after termination of the grant.11A
Also in 1971, a community outreach project in rural Illinois harkened back to the days of delivering library books by mail. The Books By Mail Project involved three library systems, Corn Belt, Rolling Prairie, and Bur Oak. The two-year project proposed extending library service to unserved residents, with the hope that they would be inspired to create library districts. This project was continued by all three systems after termination of the grant, replacing the State Library tradition of mailing books directly to unserved residents, which had been discontinued by the library a year earlier.12A
Project PRIDE was a 1977 federally funded effort by the Putnam County Library, which had been established in a 1932 demonstration and consisted of a headquarters and six branches. The three-year project was intended to develop a coordinated service program to meet the diverse needs of Putnam County residents. Among the activities were improved coordination of branch services, public relations programs to increase awareness of the branch facilities, accelerated in-service training programs, and better coordination between the county library and the local school media center. In addition, the Putnam County library promised use of local funding upon termination of the project.13A
Special Collections Development
Development of special collections tailored to patron needs were emphasized in two federally funded 1969 projects. One was the Afro-American Collection Project, begun with a grant to the Chicago Public Library to enhance its African-American collection, created in 1932 by Vivian G. Harsh, first head librarian at the George Cleveland Branch. The original collection included a union catalog of African-American materials owned by Chicago Public and other Chicago-area libraries, important books written by African-Americans, and signed first editions, periodicals and pamphlets relating to African-American culture. The project sought to acquire “scholarly research material relating to all phases of Black America, including its African origins.” The project was extended with another grant in 1973. Ultimately, the collection, with the exception of rare items, was available to all Illinois library users through the Illinois Library and Information Network. Special bibliographies and exhibits further enhanced the project.14A
The second project, based at the Library of International Relations in Chicago, examined the possible use of materials on global political, economic, and social development, and their potential use for business research. This specialized library’s resources would be used in reference work at the systems level. Services included bibliographic assistance to systems headquarters, interlibrary loans, and subscription to the International Information Service periodical for each public library in Illinois. The project lasted for one year and was not renewed.15A
A 1973 project by the Suburban Library System dealt with a similar topic. The system was granted matching funds for a contract with Ralph W. Conant and Associates to determine the professional, business, and economic library service needs of system residents. The study was intended to examine the possibility of specialized informational services in business and industry, law, and local government for residents. The study was viewed as a possible model for other systems. Completed in November 1973, it provided an economic profile of suburban Chicago along with statistics on special library service in the Chicago area, interviews with target users, and potential experimental services.16A
Another special collections program, the Guide to Illinois Library Resources Project, dealt with collections development. The purpose of this 1972 program was to compile and publish “a comprehensive guide to the resources of Illinois libraries.” This pioneering idea came from a 1969 report of the Library Committee of the Illinois Board of Higher Education and examined the subject strengths of college, university, public, and special library holdings of importance to students, scholars, and general reference staff members. Robert Downs, the former chair of the University of Illinois Library School and a member of the Illinois State Library Advisory Committee, compiled and edited the guide, which included data on subject areas and materials found in important collections statewide. Descriptions and locations of biography, bibliography, and criticism collections were also included, as was a bibliography of books, pamphlets, and articles that described library collections across the state. The Guide to Illinois Library Resources was published by the American Library Association in 1974.17A
A 1978 program took a grassroots approach to collection development and library outreach. The Antiques and Collectibles Project was funded by a two-year grant to the Cumberland Trail Library System to create a specialized collection on topics relating to antiques and collectibles. The subject was the result of patron interest as well as the 1977 paper, Toward Cooperative Collection Development in the Illinois Library and Information Network. The paper was a hallmark in the State Library’s efforts to encourage the systems to engage in cooperative development of special collections, an offshoot of the larger goal of multitype cooperation. A “comprehensive collection of
print and non-print materials” on antiques and collectibles was created through the project and included in the OCLC database to enhance its availability to Illinois libraries.18A
Collections development programs also included three oral history projects. Two of these came in 1975, starting with the Collection of Oral History Project, the first pilot project of its kind in Illinois. Sponsored by the Starved Rock Library System, the program was a response to strong area interest in gathering local history from 1890 to 1940. Fifty volunteers served as interviewers on the project, and over 100 original tapes were produced. Selected tapes were distributed to member libraries and the Illinois State Historical Library. A project manual was published and distributed not only to system members but also to interested librarians across the United States and Canada. This successful project displayed the ability of the public library as an “agent” in the collection of local history with oral recollections.19A
The project also spawned another 1975 program called History on Tape: an Oral History Workshop for Librarians. System staff members participated in the project, which was conducted by specialists from the Oral History Office at Sangamon State University (now the University of Illinois at Springfield). The intent was to provide background and insight to encourage member libraries to offer their own oral history programs. A draft of a manual used in the workshop evolved into a book, Oral History: From Tape to Type, published by the American Library Association in 1977.20A
Sangamon State was also the host for a federally funded 1979 program, the Illinois Oral History Resource Project. The purpose was to “establish a clearinghouse for Illinois oral historians and librarians” and improve professional communication and cooperative efforts. The project also sought to identify oral history collections statewide and develop access to those collections. The Oral History Resource Directory was a result of the project which, like the 1975 efforts, focused on the importance of oral history to students, genealogists, historians, ethnic groups, and other library users.21A
Genealogy had been the subject of a 1976 program sponsored by the Shawnee Library System, which sought to enhance its genealogical collection to a “level of excellence” and ability to serve libraries statewide through interlibrary loan. The project produced a cumulative bibliography of the system’s genealogical collection, the duplication of the most popular titles in the field, and a selected bibliography of recommended material for medium-sized libraries. The bibliography included books and magazines considered basic to a useful genealogy collection. The bibliographies were published in Illinois Libraries in April 1977 and led to heavy usage of the Shawnee’s genealogical collection through ILLINET. In 1980, the Shawnee published a supplement to include new titles acquired since the release of the 1976 edition.22A
Two 1979 projects focused on specific ancestry. One was the Asian American Ethnic Resources Institute, sponsored by the Graduate School of Library Science at Rosary College in Chicago. The purpose of the institute was to address the underserved sectors of the populations of Japanese-American, Korean-American, and Chinese-Americans. Planned by public and academic librarians, the project had a goal of providing a better understanding of the culture, diversity, and needs of Asian-Americans. The second was the Native American Information Referral Project, a two-year grant awarded to the Chicago Public Library. Designed to meet the library needs of urban-dwelling Native Americans, its intent was to improve library collections relating to Native Americans, create an information and referral center to help solve library problems of Native Americans, develop positive relationships with Native American individuals and groups, and create a machine-readable database on human resources available to Native Americans state -wide. Workshops, outreach programs, and an information bank were also planned through the project, which was taken over by the Chicago Public Library’s Social Sciences and History Division upon termination of federal funding.23A
Map collections also received attention through federal funding in the late 1970s. The University of Illinois received funds in 1976 to prepare a bibliography of its maps dating from 1750 to 1800. The purpose was to raise awareness to another resource that could be accessed through ILLINET. The following year, the university’s Map and Geography Library received funds for another map project, “Establishment of an Illinois Bibliographic Center for Cartographic Materials.” This program emphasized the cataloging and organization of map acquisitions to enhance service in ILLINET.24A
Also in 1977, the North Suburban Library System was awarded federal monies for purchase of the periodical collection of the Associated Colleges of the Midwest. This two-year project, the Metropolitan Periodicals Service (MPS), was meant to preserve the collection as a resource for Illinois citizens and to improve accessibility within the Chicago area. The MPS was complementary to the system’s Central Serials Service, created in 1971. The MPS, consisting of over 22,000 volumes, 15,000 microfilm reels, and 17,000 microfiche cards, was subsequently added to union lists. The collection was housed at the Newberry Library in Chicago and was accessible through ILLINET.25A
Preservation of seldom-used books was the subject of another 1977 program, the Last Copy Collection Project. The Last Copy Collection was established by the systems for books “which are not dead but do not move in local libraries.” As its name suggests, the last copy in system libraries was housed here and the remainder discarded by the systems. The funds allowed the collection to be moved from Rockford to Oak Lawn. The titles were entered into OCLC and were available by loan through ILLINET.26A
Two projects focused on municipal reference and records. The Northwest Municipal Center Project of 1977 was an effort by the Schaumburg Township Public Library and the Northwest Municipal Conference to create an “intermunicipal” reference collection. The project aimed to provide a central government document collection and reference service to the Conference, which consisted of 15 municipalities, four townships, and 13 public libraries. The public library of Mount Prospect (the city where the Conference was headquartered) served as operational host of the project, the costs of which were to be assumed by the Conference upon the termination of federal funds. In 1978, the Urbana Free Library received funding to establish a “model” municipal government document and records library. This effort involved the cooperation of the library and Urbana city offices in the maintenance of a records center and resulted in the conversion of some documents to microfiche as well as the creation of online and computer microfiche indexes. These programs came on the heels of a 1976 federally funded project to produce microfiche copies of data from the 1970 census for use by ILLINET.27A
A 1977 project involved copyright law. Major copyright law revisions from the previous year were interpreted in a pamphlet, A Fair Shake: Photocopying Rights for ILLINET Participants under the Copyright Revision Act of 1976. Topics such as “permissible” use of copyrighted material, considerations for photocopying, interlibrary loans, the keeping of records, and confidentiality were discussed.28A
Although the Adult Education Department of the State Library was abolished in 1971, the library funded several adult education projects afterward. One was the Study Unlimited Project, a 1973 program that was co-sponsored by the Chicago Public Library and the Chicago City Colleges. Federal funds from the State Library partially supported the two-phase project, directed at “special-needs, out-of-school clientele.” Study Unlimited provided opportunities for adults to earn high school certificates or work toward college degrees on an independent basis outside of a traditional classroom setting. Credit programs, credit exemption programs, and enrichment programs were offered by Study Unlimited, which pooled the human and material resources of its co-sponsors. Instructional and informational videotapes were used for the program at six service outlets of the Chicago Public Library. In 1976, two nationally respected adult education specialists evaluated the program and concluded that “the program has made an important contribution to the modern effort to find new ways of providing education to already-established clientele and of enabling people who have been previously denied an education to share in its benefits…[and] to become more productive members of society.” The program continued after termination of funding and became a national model for independent study. In 1975, the River Bend Library System created a similar program in conjunction with Black Hawk College in Moline.29A
In March 1974, the Great River Library System received federal funding for a program called “Continuing Adult Education in the Great River System.” The one-year program was a joint effort of the Great River system and Western Illinois University, and was composed of a series of humanities programs for residents in the system. Events were planned by the system director and the university’s director of Continuing Education. Although the original program called for 40 events, citizen interest led to an expansion of the program, and 65 events were eventually offered. Topics included baroque music, watercolor demonstrations, participation in theatre, the metric system, drugs and alcohol, stress, and the urbanization of rural America. The programs were located in member library communities, rather than at the university or an urban center.30A
The following year, an Illinois State Library fellowship grant funded an independent learning study in Sangamon, Menard, Logan, Macon, and Christian counties in central Illinois. The relationship of libraries to the independent learner was examined, as well as methods in which public, academic, school, and special libraries could cooperate to provide enhanced services to independent learning. The “independent learner” was defined as an individual studying to pass the Test of General Educational Development (GED) or the College Level Examination Program (CLEP). The study showed that there was substantial potential for independent study and that libraries had not participated to any great extent in existing programs. Recommendations for interlibrary cooperation included informational and referral services, coordination with educational agencies, and preparation of reading lists for the immediate needs of independent learners.31A
Two federally funded 1978 projects focused on community needs in relation to adult education. The Kaskaskia Library System initiated a two-year project, The Community Library as a Center for Individualized Study. The intent was to assist individuals in preparation for the GED test with study materials and individualized instruction. The project met the needs of the population within the system, as 64 percent of those living in the project area had not finished high school.32A
Another two-year 1978 grant was awarded to the Learning Exchange of Evanston, a non-profit continuing education center that matched people wishing to learn in a non-school setting with people wanting to teach. This Access to Human Resources Project helped the Learning Exchange expand its resources and services while providing referral data both to libraries assisting individuals as well as “program listings for libraries working with groups or planning independent programs.” The grant paid for library membership for one year and partial payment for library membership in the second year for libraries in six Chicago-area systems. The project terminated in February 1981, and libraries assumed responsibility for membership, allowing access to the Learning Exchange, its referral data, and program listings.33A
In 1974 and 1975, a program entitled “Design and Production of Educational Media Presentations on Library Networks” was federally funded. This project interpreted the functions of library networks using media. Productions were intended for use in “viewing programs” for professional conferences and the general public. Cassettes and film slides produced in the project were made available at the headquarters of all 18 library systems as well as through interlibrary loan from the Illinois State Library. In 1975, the Chicago Public Library received a grant for the creation of materials to train librarians in effective promotion of library services. The result was the creation of a public relations guidebook and a cassette slide presentation on public and community relations programs.34A
However, it appears that the State Library itself was also in need of effective promotion. Federal funds were used in 1976 to create and exhibit a series of brochures on the services of the Illinois State Library and ILLINET. The project was in response to inquiries on the services of both institutions from government employees, citizens, and librarians. The brochures were similar in function to those the State Library had produced about its services at various times over previous decades.35A
A 1976 project examined the benefits of library production of cable television programming. Initiated by the River Bend Library System in collaboration with Black Hawk College in Moline, the plan sought to utilize the new technology of cable television, which was the primary information source for substantial numbers of people within the system area, including the Quad Cities region.36A
The project was intended to provide “cultural and informational” television programming for both adults and children from a library source and to promote area libraries and their resources. The programs contained as little local identification as possible so they could be used by other systems or libraries. Bibliographies on program content were prepared for distribution through member libraries in the River Bend system, which continued to fund the project upon federal termination.37A
In 1979, the Illinois Future Exhibit Project was approved as a State Library contribution to the Governor’s Task Force on the Future of Illinois. Mobile display kiosks were created for each library system to disseminate information on the task force. Display topics included public policy alternatives, library cooperation, and the Illinois Futures Forum that was charged with public programs on the state’s future.38A
There were a number of projects in the 1970s that reflected the growing emphasis on the library needs of special institutions. Federal funds were approved for a 1973 Chicago Public Library program to improve library facilities at the Cook County Department of Corrections. The project provided traditional library service to inmates as well as materials to help them advance their educational skills. The program was renewed with another grant in 1975. In 1977, the DuPage Library System received federal funding to establish library service at the Kane County Adult Corrections Center. This two-year project sought to develop cooperation among the system, a public library, a community college library, and the county law library as a “key precept of the project.” This cooperation included reference service and loaning of materials through both interlibrary loans and bulk loans of deposit collections. Results included a stronger, betterorganized collection at the correctional center, a user survey, a current awareness bulletin, and formation of discussion groups. After the termination of federal funding, the project was taken over by the DuPage County Board of Supervisors and the DuPage County Sheriff’s Office.39A
Staffing and Continuing Education Projects
In 1967, the Illinois Library Task Analysis Project was initiated, examining the effectiveness and efficiency of personnel in Illinois libraries. It was sponsored by the Illinois Library Association and admin istered by an Ad Hoc Committee on Manpower Training and Utilization in cooperation with the Library Administration Division and the Library Education Division of the American Library Association. The three-phase, seven-year study reviewed utilization of library personnel in Illinois. Phase I identified “all tasks performed by personnel” in 18 libraries in Illinois. A total of 1,615 tasks were listed in a report released in June 1970 entitled A Task Analysis of Library Jobs in the State of Illinois.40A
In Phase II, three specialists were contracted to review the Phase I data and assess the conclusions based on their professional experience. The findings were subsequently reviewed by a panel of 27 experts from Illinois and around the nation. Phase III sought to implement key conclusions from the first two phases into a report for library administrators to use in evaluating staff organization and improving staff assignments. Also during this phase, the Descriptive List of Professional and Nonprofessional Duties in Libraries, published by the ALA in 1948, was revised and expanded. The final result of the lengthy task analysis project was the 1974 ALA publication Personnel Utilization in Libraries: a Systems Approach. Five other papers on the task analysis were created from the effort, which were made available to libraries statewide.41A
A subsequent, large-scale effort was the Personnel Performance Evaluation Institute, a 1976 grant awarded to Eastern Illinois University. The three-day institute in Charleston was administered jointly by the chairman of EIU’s Department of Library Science and the ILA’s Ad Hoc Committee on Manpower Training and Utilization. The highly successful event was later described in Illinois Libraries as “a landmark institute.” Among the topics presented were personnel administration and management, psychology and interpersonal relations, and methods to improve performance and productivity of library staffs. The institute also stressed that the most important focus must be on the work accomplished, not on the employee’s personality or character.42A
Owing to the successful event in Charleston, a second Personnel Performance Evaluation Institute was held in Normal in 1978. Co-sponsors of the three-day symposium were the State Library and Illinois State University. The institute considered the types of data needed to evaluate personnel, the sources of such data, and ways to interpret the data to improve the performance of library workers. A continual evaluation plan allowed for each session to be evaluated immediately, creating a proactive approach to the planning of the rest of the institute.43A
Library training was also the focus of a federally funded program by the Graduate School of Library Science at the University of Illinois in 1968-69, offering non-credit, in-service training at more locations. Directed at working librarians “who felt a need for increased competencies in various aspects of library service,” the project was aimed at untrained personnel in small libraries. Subject matter included basic training in reference material, cataloging, and book selection.44A
Cooperation among libraries was the subject of a 1968 program also jointly sponsored by the State Library and the Graduate School of Library Science. “Cooperation between Types of Libraries: the Beginning of a State Plan for Library Services in Illinois” was the subject of an Allerton Park conference on Nov. 3-6, 1968. These Allerton Park Institutes were important events in Illinois librarianship during the decade. Libraries of all types participated in the 1968 institute, which is considered to be the first substantial effort to discuss the potentials, and problems, of intertype library cooperation in the state. The Library Research Center at the University of Illinois was commissioned that same year to compile a bibliography to supplement papers from the institute. The bibliography was entitled Statewide Library Surveys and Development Plans: An Annotated Bibliography, 1965-67.45A
Although most Illinois libraries had joined systems by the end of the 1960s, there were still a few holdouts, and in 1969-70, the State Library offered “systems incentives” to encourage them to join systems. Grants covered the costs of regular system services to nonmember libraries for a limited period of time to display the benefits of system membership. Interlibrary loan, reference, delivery, and continuing education projects were offered to the nonmembers during this trial period. Nonmember libraries had the choice of joining a system or remaining outside. Many nonmembers chose to join, and the project “achieved its goal to a satisfactory extent.”46A
Other federally funded staff and resource utilization projects continued in 1971. Among them was a Library Research Center study of audiovisual collections in all 18 library systems, using the American Library Association Guidelines for Audiovisual Materials and Services for Public Libraries as a means for evaluation. Costs and benefits of providing 16mm film service were analyzed and, not surprisingly, the survey stressed the need for cooperation or consolidation among the audiovisual units of each system. The report was subsequently published in the April 1973 issue of Illinois Libraries as “Audiovisual Resources at Illinois Public Library Systems – with Emphasis on 16mm Films.” Survey data became the basis for group discussions analyzing problems and ideas for 16mm film usage and promotion. Supplementing the survey was a workshop, “Access to 16mm Films in Urbana” on Sept. 27-29, 1972, sponsored jointly by the Illinois State Library and the Library Research Center. Every type of library as well as film cooperatives and university A-V departments were represented.47A
Subsequently, a federally funded project by the Library Research Center in 1973 examined the Library Technical Assistant program that was offered by Illinois junior colleges. That same year, the Illinois State Library approved a Library Research Center project to explore, and start, a course of study for professional librarians looking to specialize in planning and evaluation. Collaborating on the project was the Center for Instructional Research and Curriculum Education at the University of Illinois. Also in 1973, a two-year Library Research Center study was approved to develop procedures and techniques in the creation of long-range plans for the 18 library systems of the state.48A
Another Library Services and Construction Act program emphasizing AV was the Cable Television Institute Project, which was the subject of the 19th Allerton Park Institute on Nov. 11-14, 1973. Each of the Allerton Park Institutes was paid for with federal funds. This project was jointly sponsored by the State Library and two University of Illinois bodies: the Graduate School of Library Science and the Office of Continuing Education and Public Service. All 18 systems were represented at the institute, which attracted librarians from across the United States and Canada. The institute was intended to increase awareness of the potential of cable television in all types of libraries, provide an increased understanding of cable television technology, and discuss problems and potentials with experts and consultants. The Graduate School of Library Science published the proceedings of the event in 1974 under the title CATV and its Implications for Libraries.49A
In 1975, the Portage-Cragin branch of the Chicago Public Library received federal funding for a multimedia service program. The project aimed to add a new type of resource to a neighborhood library and provide new methods of study or leisure through viewing and listening devices. All types of audio-visual media were used in this pilot project, which added to its innovation. A “hands-on” policy induced individuals and groups of all ages to use the multimedia offered by the library.50A
Two years later, the State Library contracted with the Suburban Audio Visual Service (SAVS), a joint venture of the Suburban and North Suburban Library Systems, in another media program. The Audiovisual Materials Project was a two-year project that strove to improve access to audiovisual materials for all Illinois residents with resource sharing within ILLINET. Each of the 18 library systems received incentive funds that were intended to strengthen current collections and induce effective resource sharing. The plan included coordination of service programs and enhanced cooperative collection development, a reflection of the State Library’s goal of system cooperation. One goal was the creation of a Union List of 16 mm Films. Compiled by SAVS, the Union List identified film holdings of libraries statewide and was completed in August 1979.51A
Also in 1979, SAVS and the Rolling Prairie Library System contracted for the Multimedia Access Project, which examined the barriers in sharing audiovisual resources because of incompatible audiovisual formats. The project considered specific objectives, from conversion of formats to extension to the system’s audiovisual services. Two regional centers were established as a result of the project – one at SAVS headquarters and one in the Rolling Prairie system. The centers effectively became Reference and Research Centers specializing in audiovisual formats to enhance ILLINET.52A
The 1974 Allerton Park Institute focused on collective bargaining. Partially supported by federal monies, the project was again co-sponsored by the State Library and two University of Illinois bodies, the Graduate School of Library Science and the Office of Continuing Education and Public Service. A nationwide audience attended the institute, which examined how collective bargaining works in libraries. Subjects included library unionization, the legal environment, negotiations, and the impact of unionization on a large public library and an academic library. The proceedings of the institute were published the following year under the title Collective Bargaining in Libraries.53A
A two-year, on-the-job training project for members of the Rolling Prairie Libraries System was funded in 1971. A professional library worker was stationed at each member library for four one-week periods during the year. The librarian was available for training staff ranging “from demonstrating techniques in public relations to the updating of book collections.” The intent was to create a model training program helping librarians meet minimum standards. Newly trained librarians could then assist in the systems’ continuing education programs to help inexperienced workers in neighboring libraries with duties including weeding a collection or planning programs. Cooperative personnel efforts evolved into staff sharing programs, which received great emphasis in the late 1970s.54A
Managing tight library budgets was the focus of a partially funded 1972 “Dollar Decisions” program. Cosponsored by the Illinois Library Trustees Association and the Illinois Library Association, the project was composed of six workshops held around the state. The workshops were intended to increase awareness of librarians and trustees about fiscal responsibility. Emphasis was placed on the budget as a tool for planning better library service. A similar program, “Dollar Stretching Techniques,” was sponsored by the ILA in August and September 1978. Subjects such as budgeting, referenda, home rule, grants, bequests, and “dollar-stretching management” were discussed, with emphasis on small- to medium-sized libraries. The final papers of the workshops were published in a 20-page insert in the March 1979 edition of Illinois Libraries.55A
A 1977 workshop partially funded with federal monies also helped libraries identify and achieve long-range goals. Held in May 1977 at Sangamon State University (now the University of Illinois at Springfield), “Objectives Setting and Evaluation: a Management Tool for Libraries” was a Priority Planning project initiated by the Illinois Association of College and Research Libraries Section of the ILA and developed jointly by the Public Library Section and Illinois Association of School Librarians Section of the ILA. The intent of the workshop was to provide librarians and trustees of all types of libraries with a background “to help them formulate effective organizational and institutional goals.” Unit leaders of the library associations were helped in creating long-range objectives and goals for their own organizations.56A
The mid- to late-1970s also saw a spate of federally funded programs geared toward libraries serving populations of 10,000 or fewer. One was the Program of Service for Small Public Libraries (POSE), which was initiated by the Northern Illinois Library System. That system, along with the DuPage, River Bend, Starved Rock, and Suburban Library Systems, jointly planned the effort, which resulted in an institute at Northern Illinois University in DeKalb on Aug. 10-13, 1976. The institute was directed at librarians of 112 libraries serving populations of 10,000 or under, and attendance was limited to practicing librarians who did not hold a library science degree. POSE I was intended to “develop a prototype in continuing education for untrained librarians.” The institute covered such topics as the library’s role in the community, budgeting, programming based on community analysis, and a review of “Programs that Work.”57A
A second institute, POSE II, was funded in 1978 and held at Northern Illinois University on Aug. 7-10, 1978. Small public librarians with no library science degree were again invited, and a trustee from each participating library was encouraged to attend. POSE II dealt with “The Art and Science of Library Leadership” and covered such topics as group dynamics, personal development, personnel issues, limited building space, library law, and audiovisual equipment.58A
In August 1977, the Library ABC’s Institute was held at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. Jointly sponsored by the Cumberland Trail, Kaskaskia, Lewis and Clark, and Shawnee Library Systems, the title “ABC’s” was an acronym for three key library topics: administration, budgeting, and communication skills. The institute was designed for librarians in communities of 10,000 or smaller. The comprehensive workshop included talks, panel discussions, small group sessions, role-playing, films, library tours, and consultation with outside experts. The success of the event led to Library ABC’s Institute II in 1978, again sponsored by the same four library systems in cooperation with Southern Illinois University and the Illinois State Library. This second institute was intended to provide skills to “untrained librarians” in the utilization of ILLINET. Institute content was created from specific requests through librarians and trustees for assistance in library finance, budgeting, and programming.59A
Libraries in towns with populations of 10,000 or less were also the focus of the Library Administrator’s Institute, a five-day workshop held in May 1978 at Western Illinois University in Macomb. Sponsored by the Great Rivers, Lewis and Clark, and Western Illinois Library Systems, the institute sought to aid untrained librarians to provide quality service, enhance utilization of ILLINET, and adhere to continuing education in librarianship. As in the Library ABC’s Institutes, an outside evaluator helped plan the institute and pro-vided detailed evaluations of the project.60A
Two other institutes in the summer of 1979 similarly were geared toward smaller libraries. The Summer Institute at McKendree College (SLIM) was an in-service training project that included staff of small public, school, special, and academic libraries. Sponsored by the Kaskaskia Library System, SLIM was based on the Library ABC’s Institutes, but with increased focus on interlibrary cooperation. Total registration for SLIM was 120. The State Library used these programs to implement long-range goals such as interlibrary cooperation and development of ILLINET statewide. That July 30 to August 2, MacMurray College in Jacksonville hosted a Reference Institute sponsored by the Great Rivers, Rolling Prairie, and Western Illinois Library Systems and partially planned by representatives of academic, school, and public libraries. Reference skills, patron satisfaction, selection and evaluation of materials, and skills in reference management and communication were topics discussed at the institute.61A
Reference skills had also been the subject of a 1976 workshop initiated by the State Library. Aimed at systems consultants, the presenters were experts in communication skills and library reference. The “most effective techniques of communication to be used in reference situations” was the focus of the workshop. The State Library subsequently made videotapes of the workshop available to all types of libraries. Also in 1976, a workshop sponsored by the ILA called “Access to Information: State Government Services and Publications” was held in Springfield. The workshop discussed state agencies’ services and publications that could be used by librarians to meet their patrons’ informational needs.62A
Legal assistance for public libraries was the subject of Project Recodification, a 1979 program designed to aid in the recodification of the Illinois Public Library District Act. The Legislative Library Development Committee of the ILA initiated the project, which enlisted an attorney with library law experience to complete a draft for recodification of the Act. The intent was to strengthen the existing Act to encourage the development of library districts, an ongoing State Library goal. The project included several hearings for librarians, trustees, and interested citizens to voice their views on recodification.63A
Implementation of minimum standards for public libraries was a major focus of the State Library in the early 1970s and resulted in a 1971 project jointly sponsored by the State Library and the ILA. A drafted standard for public libraries was created by a committee of the Public Library Section of the ILA and widely distributed among libraries in the state. Reactions of librarians and trustees were heard at six regional meetings in the spring of 1971, and the final document was approved by ILA members at their annual conference that October.64A
The standards, or “Measures of Quality,” were a comprehensive analysis of most library activities. Topics covered included service, materials, selection, organization, structure and government, control, personnel, and physical facilities. The document was printed and distributed by the Illinois State Library with federal funding. Responsibility for implementing “Measures of Quality” was left up to library administrators and trustees. Unfortunately, their efforts proved erratic. A Joint Committee on Standards Implementation, composed of members of the Public Library Section of the ILA and the Illinois Library Trustees Association, recommended a series of federally funded workshops to “stimulate action in the utilization of the standards by all public libraries in the state.”65A
Another major effort to implement standards was the Program to Achieve State Standards Project (PASS), a three-year, three-phase project first funded in 1973. The PASS I workshops of 1973 were held statewide to develop goals and implement standards. Participants needed advice on how to determine the ongoing needs of their communities. As a result, the PASS II workshops in 1974 stressed “the basic factors in the task of community analysis as a continuing responsibility for local library development.” Speakers and consultants at the workshops included specialists in community studies. A booklet was produced to serve as a guideline for the workshops. This publication, Analyzing Your Community: Basis for Building Library Service was reprinted in Illinois Libraries in February 1975.66A
The PASS III workshops of 1975 considered practical methods of library service planning through “translating goals and analysis into action.” Topics included funding, legal responsibilities, budgeting, personnel, and community relations. By the series end, a number of libraries had taken steps to meet minimum standards, including extending of hours by smaller libraries. The standards also served as guidelines for evaluating federally funded programs, including library construction projects.67A
Still, by 1978 the State Library conceded that “the existing minimum standards for public libraries in Illinois were drawn up before the systems had reached their full maturity” and that the evolving “patterns of cooperation and system service” had changed the parameters under which local libraries operated. As a result, the State Library pledged to re-evaluate the minimum standards.68A
Children and Youth Needs
In addition to the Children’s Book Review and Examination Centers, other projects aimed at children received attention in the early 1970s. One was the 1972 Rosary Pilot Institute Project for librarians working with young people in grades 6-10. The project was a cooperative effort of the Graduate School of Library Science at Rosary College (now Dominican College) in Chicago and the Executive Board of the Children’s Librarians’ Section of the Illinois Library Association. Beginning on Oct. 4, 1972, a 10-week, non-credit course was offered to help librarians improve services for adolescent library users. The relationship of school libraries to public library service, appropriate reference materials, and the use of books and media in library programming were examined. The curriculum also included a hands-on study of various types of audio-visual equipment. Thirty-three children’s and adult services librarians from the Chicago area took part in the institute. The Rosary Pilot Institute and the Children’s Book Review and Examination Centers programs were two of 11 major projects funded between 1972 and 1979 for library services for children and young adults.69A
The A.L. Bowen Children’s Center Project was the result of a 1972-73 grant to the Shawnee Library System to deliver improved library service projects to developmentally disabled residents of the center in Harrisburg. The program provided a collection of visual and audiovisual materials including “touch and feel” books, picture books, “high-interest, low-vocabulary” books, and books for emotionally disturbed children with normal reading ability. The project terminated on March 31, 1974, and in 1978, the Bowen library service was included in state appropriations.70A
In 1975, the State Library sponsored a workshop on library services for young adults aimed at library system consultants. Conducted by a specialist from the New York Public Library, the program emphasized trends in library service and practical approaches to programming for young adults. That same year, five regional workshops, co-sponsored by the Public Library Section and the Children’s Librarians’ Section of the Illinois Library Association, were held to discuss the needs of developmentally disabled patrons. The workshops strove to increase institutional and public librarians’ awareness of their responsibilities to the developmentally disabled.71A
Three federally funded workshops in 1976 focused on multimedia in youth library needs. “It’s a Multimedia World” workshops were held in DeKalb, Bloomington, and Belleville and sponsored by the Children’s Librarians’ Section of the ILA. Discussions of traditional media to the latest trends in audiovisual materials and equipment were included. A comprehensive list of media program ideas collected from libraries statewide was also distributed at each workshop.72A
The 1976 Children’s Services-School Services Liaison-Consultant Project was aimed “to plan, organize, and implement more advanced coordinated services” for children and young adults. Sponsored by the Suburban Library System, the program sought to integrate the entire library community in encouraging young people to become “lifetime library users.” Coordination between public library children’s departments and school media centers was also enhanced. The project was considered a “test” for the multitype library cooperation that was a goal of ILLINET.73A
The following year, the Gail Borden Public Library District (the public library of Elgin) received federal funding to create a Preschool Media Center. The plan was to establish a learning center for preschoolers, their parents, and teachers. A media collection on small child development, as well as staff expertise in using that media, was created, and programs tailored toward children’s needs and interests were also established. Programs to evaluate the project and share the experiences of the project with other libraries were also initiated. Innovations of this highly successful endeavor made the Gail Borden Preschool Media Center a national model.74A
That same year, the Analytical Survey of Illinois Public Library Services to Children was created to collect, analyze, and publish “factual data and verifiable observations in regard to certain aspects of children’s services in at least a sample of Illinois libraries.” In the long-term, the project intended to aid in changing work practices in the children’s library field in Illinois public libraries. The survey, initiated by the Children’s Librarians’ Section of the ILA, was funded by the Children’s Section and the Public Library Section of the ILA. Results were published in 1978.75A
The Starved Rock Library System received funding for a four-day seminar in October 1978 for young adult librarians that sought to improve services to young adults. The goals were to identify the problems and needs of young adults, increase librarian knowledge of adolescent psychology, improve cooperation between school and public libraries, and supply expertise to create a training program on the topic of young adult library users. The program as a whole was highly successful and became a model for other library systems in the state.76A
In 1979, the Schaumburg Township Public Library of the North Suburban Library System received funds for The Illinois Setting: A Model Program for Youth Orientation. Creating a comprehensive collection of materials on Illinois’ natural resources, culture, and history to attract children ages 7-13 was the focus. Identifying, purchasing, and interpreting both print and non-print materials to help youngsters form an in-depth understanding was the primary objective. A secondary objective was to develop multimedia programs to make “significant contributions to the study of Illinois.”77A
Automation was a leading issue at the State Library during the 1970s. Many federally funded programs complemented the library’s efforts to utilize new technology. The 1975 Videotaping Training Project workshop, sponsored by the State Library and conducted by Becker and Hayes, Inc., examined videotaping tech niques as part of technology related to library automation. The project was meant to benefit both the State Library and ILLINET.78A
Computer technology was the basis of a 1978 contract awarded to the Library Research Center at the University of Illinois to revise reporting forms used by public libraries. The forms were used for annual reports to the State Library that were required by law. The project sought to develop a form that would be compatible with a computer program to increase the effective management of annual compilations of statistics from Illinois public libraries.79A
Reference and Research Centers
In 1972, the four Reference and Research Centers received their last funds through the Library Services and Construction Act, ending a practice that had started with the centers’ formation in 1965. Beginning in 1973, the four centers were funded with state monies. This change was apparently no reflection on the value of the centers. A 1968 evaluation found the centers providing “a very appropriate base to assure that highly specialized and little used library materials will be acquired and made available to all citizens of the state that have a need for them.” Each center catered to specific needs. The Chicago Public Library held foreign language fiction, expensive general materials, resources for business and industrial users, periodicals, and juvenile materials. The State Library was a key source for state and national documents, verification of materials from United States bibliographies, and acquisition of specialized materials that were not found at the other three centers. The centers at the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois University served as academic libraries with well-developed research collections.80A
A Westat study (cited in Meeting the Challenge) provided an in-depth analysis of the costs of interlibrary loan and reference activities of the Reference and Research Centers. The report, Costs and Effectiveness of Interlibrary Loan and Reference Activities of Resource Libraries in Illinois, compared the four Reference and Research Centers with five other major Illinois libraries. The Reference and Research Centers were found to be more efficient in servicing requests than the other libraries both in terms of cost and ability to fill requests.81A
Over 72 percent of requests to the R & R centers were made by teletype, with the remainder split nearly evenly between mail and courier. Over 93 percent of requests were for monographs. Social sciences and technology were the most popular topics. Most requests came for books less than 10 years old. However, only 34 percent of total requests were filled by the R & R centers, a troubling fact. The number of unfilled requests would indicate that the R & R centers did not have sufficient material to keep up with increasing reference needs. However, the State Library compared very favorably to the other three centers, filling the highest percentage of requests with lower costs. With little comment, State Library Director Alphonse Trezza, concluding that the centers were not receiving enough funding from the State Library “to meet the expanding need,” urged higher state appropriations to include more types of libraries in the interlibrary loan system.82A
The Illinois Regional Library Council was dedicated to interlibrary cooperation in the early 1970s and spawned efforts statewide. A similar program encouraging multitype library cooperation was the Illinois Valley Library System Project, initiated by the Interlibrary Cooperation Council of the Greater Peoria Area. The Illinois Valley Library System received federal funding for the project in 1973. Unlike the Illinois Regional Library Council, the Peoria program was system-based. The project shared many of the same goals as its library system and strived to “maintain a dynamic and cooperative system” of libraries to “collectively provide services of a type and quality” that individual libraries could not provide by themselves.83A
Another example of the cooperative activities of the Illinois Valley Library System was a two-year grant in 1979 entitled Experimental Project: Sharing Resources – Materials/Information, Bibliographic Data, and Staff. The long title explained it all; the system was attempting to find ways to share all types of library resources for its own benefit as well as that of ILLINET. In addition, the project specifically focused on the “application of products and processes which compose the elements of OCLC.” The project sought to test various methods of sharing computer terminals, sharing personnel to provide “customized cataloging in clusters of libraries,” and sharing personnel and terminals “to tap a wide range of resources.” The Experimental Project was a step towards the larger goal of developing online bibliographic systems.84A
In 1978, a joint effort by the Corn Belt, Cumberland Trail, and Western Illinois Library Systems received federal funds to “accelerate cooperative developmental programs” in each system. The grants were intended to support the work of interlibrary cooperation consultants and increase the number of libraries participating in ILLINET. As a result, cooperative activities were extended in the Cumberland Trail system, a Union Book Catalog was produced by the Corn Belt system, and a delivery system connecting libraries and neighboring systems was created in the Western Illinois system.85A
While special libraries were emphasized during this period, school libraries also received attention. In 1970-71, the Library Research Center conducted the School Library Media Survey, funded by the Library Services and Construction Act, the Illinois Association of School Librarians, the Graduate School of Library Science at the University of Illinois, and the university itself. The program was developed by the Legislative-Library Development Committee of the ILA and surveyed the status of public and private elementary and secondary school library programs statewide.86A
The variety of schools added to the difficulty of the study, which used questionnaires in three phases to collect data. Library media data was collected for 3,059 public and 754 nonpublic schools and was generally found wanting. Furthermore, the study determined that school library media centers “urgently needed increased support to assure adequate personnel, materials and equipment, and a high grade of consulting and advisory services.” The lengthy 90-page report was reprinted in the October 1972 issue of Illinois Libraries.87A
ILLINET and Systems
Several projects concerned the development of ILLINET and the library systems, two of the foremost issues at the State Library in the 1970s. One was the ILLINET Research Project of 1976, “directed at program planning and evaluation.” Initiated by the State Library, the marketing research firm of Elrick and Lavidge was employed to conduct a two-part survey of public opinion and public usage of Illinois libraries. In Part I, 900 library users were surveyed, while Part II considered 160 library users. The data was used by the State Library and the systems to plan public information programs through the media.88A
A simultaneous study on the role of libraries complemented the Elrick and Lavidge project. This second program was the subject of Illinois’ participation in a 1975 multi-state project to examine public attitudes toward libraries and patterns of their use. The Gallup Organization conducted the study, which was supported by the American Library Association and included the participation of 16 state library agencies, including the Illinois State Library. Personal interviews were conducted during the week of July 17-23, 1975. The data collected from the interviews was compared with the Elrick and Lavidge study to provide helpful information for the State Library. The Gallup study was reported in American Libraries in April 1976 as a tool that could “challenge preconceptions and stimulate thinking.”89A
Evaluation of the systems was the topic of a prototype approved in 1975 that featured the Kaskaskia Library System. The intent was to determine the effectiveness of the Kaskaskia system in “raising the quality of library service” for residents in the system area through “evaluative procedures” designed to serve as a prototype for evaluations of the other systems.90A
The chief investigator was Robert Rohlf, author of the landmark Plan for Public Library Development in Illinois. The study examined the administration, operation, and services of the Kaskaskia system with respect to the Illinois Library Systems Act and the Illinois State Library Rules and Regulations that governed the systems. Topics such as finances, resources, policies, public and technical services, system boards, staff development, and continuing education were among those considered. In September 1975, the final report, Kaskaskia Library System: an Evaluative Study with Recommendations for Future Action, was completed. The document stressed the leadership role of the system in “the educational and political process to improve library funding” and the need for systems to devise and execute “an aggressive plan of service.”91A
As the State Library strove to improve library development across Illinois, library trustees became a focal point. In 1978-79, the 500-Plus program was the first project in the history of cooperation between the Illinois Library Trustees Association and the State Library that was entirely devoted to and planned by trustees. This federally funded program, whose name denoted the fact there were over 500 public libraries in Illinois, consisted of five workshops presented statewide.92A
500-Plus offered a learning environment for trustees and attempted to build a “structure for continuing education for trustees.” The planners utilized the experience and knowledge of “seasoned trustees” and the communication skills of “trustee leaders.” The last session of each workshop was “dedicated to the training of ‘trustee trainers.’” The program proved highly successful. On Jan. 15, 1980, Library Journal reported, “Illinois gave more intensive training to its most promising trustee leaders and sent them back to the front lines.”93A
Federally funded projects reached into many other areas of librarianship as well. One, the Utilization of Illinois Libraries by Academic Personnel Project, was a two-year plan approved in 1979 and initiated by the Library Task Force of the Illinois Board of Higher Education. The plan was contracted to the Center for the Study of Middle-Size Cities of Sangamon State University (now the University of Illinois at Springfield). The two-phase project examined patterns of library use and satisfaction among academic personnel across the state. The first phase surveyed materials and services available in the state’s college and university libraries. The second phase analyzed data collected in the first phase. The goal was to “contribute to the inventory of library resources in Illinois” and create data that would aid in the development of multitype cooperation.94A
These federally funded programs of the 1960s and 1970s often served as models for later programs. Programs of that era also had broader scope than later efforts, which focused more specifically on individual libraries, systems, or smaller groups. The programs of the 1960s and 1970s helped the Illinois State Library reaffirm its leadership position in state librarianship. They influenced many Illinois libraries, systems, and staffs to take leadership roles in development of their own libraries. As a result, the programs had a positive effect on thousands of Illinois library users and earned the State Library much professional respect and publicity.
1A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 330, June 1980, 557; Chicago Daily Defender March 30, 1968.
2A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 322-323, 330-331, June 1980, 557-558.
3A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 557-558; Chicago Tribune March 25, 1971.
4A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 559; Illinois Nodes Feb. 15, 1973, 1; Minutes of the Illinois State Library Advisory Committee Sept. 6, 1974.
6A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 330, June 1980, 558.
7A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 331-332, June 1980, 558.
8A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 320, June 1980, 558; Illinois Nodes May 1972, 6.
9A. Illinois Libraries Dec. 1979, 871, June 1980, 559; Illinois Nodes Sept. 1978, 3.
10A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 329-330, June 1980, 558.
11A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 321, June 1980, 558-559; Illinois Nodes Feb. 15, 1973, 3.
12A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 320-321, 329, March 1974, 247, Nov. 1974, 908-909, 916, June 1980, 558.
13A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 559.
14A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 320, April 1972, 303, June 1980, 547; Chicago Tribune Nov. 9, 1972; Illinois Nodes Nov. 15, 1972, 1; Minutes of the Illinois State Library Advisory Committee Sept. 8, 1972.
15A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 547.
16A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 556.
17A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 547-548.
18A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 550; Illinois Nodes May 1978, 3.
19A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 548; Illinois Nodes Feb. 27, 1976, 2.
20A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 548; Illinois Nodes Feb. 17, 1975, 1.
21A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 551.
22A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 548-549, April 1986, 251-252; Illinois Nodes Oct. 24, 1975, 2.
23A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 550-551.
24A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 549; Illinois Nodes April 20, 1977, 3.
25A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 549, Dec. 1977, 803, Nov. 1978, 792-793.
26A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 550.
27A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 549-550.
28A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 550.
29A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 569, Dec. 1977, 813-814, Nov. 1978, 802; Illinois Nodes Oct. 24, 1975, 3; Minutes of the Illinois State Library Advisory Committee June 8, 1973.
30A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 569.
31A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 569-570, June 1976, 504-517.
32A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 570.
34A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 570-571.
35A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 571.
36A. Illinois Nodes Nov. 24, 1976, 2; Illinois Libraries June 1980, 571.
38A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 572.
39A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 563.
40A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 563-564.
41A. Illinois Nodes Aug. 18, 1972, 3, March 15, 1973, 1; Illinois Libraries June 1980, 563-564.
42A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 564; Illinois Nodes Sept. 22, 1975, 1.
44A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 534.
45A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 539; Minutes of the Illinois State Library Advisory Committee Sept. 6, 1974.
46A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 555-556.
47A. Illinois Nodes Sept. 18, 1972, 2; Illinois Libraries April 1973, 282-303, June 1980, 545.
48A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 527.
49A. Illinois Nodes Aug. 15, 1973, 1; Illinois Libraries June 1980, 535.
50A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 546.
51A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 546, Dec. 1977, 805, Nov. 1978, 795.
52A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 546.
53A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 535; Minutes of the Illinois State Library Advisory Committee March 22, 1974.
54A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 321, June 1980, 534.
55A. Illinois Libraries March 1979, insert pages 1-20, June 1980, 568.
56A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 536, Feb. 1978, 168.
57A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 535; Illinois Nodes Oct. 22, 1976, 2.
58A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 536.
59A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 536-537, Dec. 1977, 774, Nov. 1978, 759; Library ABCs II, 1-6.
60A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 537.
61A. Illinois Libraries Dec. 1979, 871, June 1980, 537.
62A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 535-536.
63A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 568.
64A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 322, June 1980, 567.
65A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 568; Illinois Nodes May 31, 1972, 3.
66A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 568; Illinois Nodes May 15, 1973, 2, 5, July 31, 1973, 1, Feb. 15-28, 1974, 2.
67A. Illinois Libraries May 1976, 382; Illinois Nodes Feb. 28, 1975, 3, March 31, 1975, 3.
68A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 568.
69A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 528-529.
70A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 563; Illinois Nodes May 31, 1972, 6, Nov. 30, 1973, 3.
71A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 529.
73A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 529-530, Dec. 1976, 822-823.
74A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 530; Illinois Nodes July 1978, 3.
77A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 530-531.
78A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 544.
79A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 528.
80A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 547.
81A. Halcli 10; Vernon E. Palmour and Lucy M. Gray, Costs and Effectiveness of Interlibrary Loan and Reference Activities of Resource Libraries in Illinois, 1, 3-5, 11-12.
82A. Palmour and Gray i-ii, 17-20; Illinois Nodes Sept. 30, 1972, 1.
83A. Illinois Nodes Oct. 30, 1973, 1; Illinois Libraries June 1980, 540.
84A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 544-545.
85A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 541.
86A. Illinois Libraries April-May 1971, 336; June 1980, 554.
87A. Ibid. The report may be found on pages 553-643 of the October 1972 issue of Illinois Libraries.
88A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 527; Illinois Nodes Jan. 31, 1977, 1. 89A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 527-528.
90A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 556.
92A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 533; Illinois Nodes May 1978, 4.
93A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 533; Library Journal Jan. 15, 1980, 176-177.
94A. Illinois Libraries June 1980, 554.